Central Arctic Ocean surface–atmosphere exchange of CO2 and CH4 constrained by direct measurements

Prytherch, J, Murto, S, Brown, IJ, Ulfsbo, A, Thornton, BF, Brüchert, V, Tjernström, M, Hermansson, AL, Nylund, AT and Holthusen, LA 2024 Central Arctic Ocean surface–atmosphere exchange of CO2 and CH4 constrained by direct measurements. Biogeosciences, 21 (2). 671-688. https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-21-671-2024

Prytherch 2024. Central Arctic Ocean surface–atmosphere exchange of CO2 and CH4 constrained by direct measurements.pdf - Published Version
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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/bg-21-671-2024


The central Arctic Ocean (CAO) plays an important role in the global carbon cycle, but the current and future exchange of the climate-forcing trace gases methane(CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) between the CAO and the atmosphere is highly uncertain. In particular, there are very few observations of near-surface gas concentrations or direct air–sea CO2 flux estimates and no previously reported direct air–sea CH4 flux estimates from the CAO. Furthermore, the effect of sea ice on the exchange is not well understood. We present direct measurements of the air–sea flux of CH4 and CO2, as well as air–snow fluxes of CO2 in the summertime CAO north of 82.5◦ N from the Synoptic Arctic Survey (SAS) expedition carried out on the Swedish icebreaker Oden in 2021. Measurements of air–sea CH4 and CO2 flux were made using floating chambers deployed in leads accessed from sea ice and from the side of Oden, and air–snow fluxes were determined from chambers deployed on sea ice. Gas transfer velocities determined from fluxes and surface-water-dissolved gas concentrations exhibited a weaker wind speed dependence than existing parameterisations, with a median sea-ice lead gas transfer rate of 2.5 cm h−1 applicable over the observed 10 m wind speed range (1–11 m s−1 ). The average observed air–sea CO2 flux was −7.6 mmolm−2 d −1, and the average air–snow CO2 flux was −1.1 mmolm−2 d −1. Extrapolating these fluxes and the corresponding sea-ice concentrations gives an August and September flux for the CAO of −1.75 mmolm−2 d −1, within the range of previous indirect estimates.The average observed air–sea CH4 flux of 3.5 µmolm−2 d−1, accounting for sea-ice concentration, equates to an August and September CAO flux of 0.35 µmolm−2 d−1, lower than previous estimates and implying that the CAO is a very small (- 1 %) contributor to the Arctic flux of CH4 to the atmosphere.

Item Type: Publication - Article
Divisions: Plymouth Marine Laboratory > Science Areas > Marine Biochemistry and Observations
Depositing User: S Hawkins
Date made live: 23 Apr 2024 08:55
Last Modified: 23 Apr 2024 14:19
URI: https://plymsea.ac.uk/id/eprint/10184

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