Role of silicon in the development of complex crystal shapes in coccolithophores

Langer, G; Taylor, AR; Walker, CE; Meyer, EM; Joseph, OB; Gal, A; Harper, GM; Probert, I; Brownlee, C; Wheeler, G. 2021 Role of silicon in the development of complex crystal shapes in coccolithophores. New Phytologist, 231 (5). 1845-1857. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.17230

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Abstract/Summary

The development of calcification by the coccolithophores had a profound impact on ocean carbon cycling, but the evolutionary steps leading to the formation of these complex biomineralized structures are not clear. Heterococcoliths consisting of intricately shaped calcite crystals are formed intracellularly by the diploid life cycle phase. Holococcoliths consisting of simple rhombic crystals can be produced by the haploid life cycle stage but are thought to be formed extracellularly, representing an independent evolutionary origin of calcification. We use advanced microscopy techniques to determine the nature of coccolith formation and complex crystal formation in coccolithophore life cycle stages. We find that holococcoliths are formed in intracellular compartments in a similar manner to heterococcoliths. However, we show that silicon is not required for holococcolith formation and that the requirement for silicon in certain coccolithophore species relates specifically to the process of crystal morphogenesis in heterococcoliths. We therefore propose an evolutionary scheme in which the lower complexity holococcoliths represent an ancestral form of calcification in coccolithophores. The subsequent recruitment of a silicon-dependent mechanism for crystal morphogenesis in the diploid life cycle stage led to the emergence of the intricately shaped heterococcoliths, enabling the formation of the elaborate coccospheres that underpin the ecological success of coccolithophores.

Item Type: Publication - Article
Additional Keywords: biomineralization, calciļ¬cation,coccolith, coccolithophore, evolution, silicon
Subjects: Marine Sciences
Divisions: Marine Biological Association of the UK > Mechanisms underlying biogeochemical and ecological processes > Cell and Molecular Programme
Depositing User: Emily Smart
Date made live: 28 Sep 2021 14:37
Last Modified: 28 Sep 2021 14:37
URI: http://plymsea.ac.uk/id/eprint/9382

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