Macroalgal blooms alter community structure and primary productivity in marine ecosystems

Lyons, D; Arvanitidis, C; Blight, AJ; Chatzinikolaou, E; Guy-Haim, T; Kotta, J; Orav-Kotta, H; Queiros, AM; Rilov, G; Somerfield, PJ; Crowe, TP. 2014 Macroalgal blooms alter community structure and primary productivity in marine ecosystems. Global Change Biology. 10.1111/gcb.12644

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Abstract/Summary

Eutrophication, coupled with loss of herbivory due to habitat degradation and overharvesting, has increased the frequency and severity of macroalgal blooms worldwide. Macroalgal blooms interfere with human activities in coastal areas, and sometimes necessitate costly algal removal programs. They also have many detrimental effects on marine and estuarine ecosystems, including induction of hypoxia, release of toxic hydrogen sulfide into the sediments and atmosphere, and the loss of ecologically and economically important species. However, macroalgal blooms can also increase habitat complexity, provide organisms with food and shelter, and reduce other problems associated with eutrophication. These contrasting effects make their overall ecological impacts unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the overall effects of macroalgal blooms on several key measures of ecosystem structure and functioning in marine ecosystems. We also evaluated some of the ecological and methodological factors that might explain the highly variable effects observed in different studies. Averaged across all studies, macroalgal blooms had negative effects on the abundance and species richness of marine organisms, but blooms by different algal taxa had different consequences, ranging from strong negative to strong positive effects. Blooms' effects on species richness also depended on the habitat where they occurred, with the strongest negative effects seen in sandy or muddy subtidal habitats and in the rocky intertidal. Invertebrate communities also appeared to be particularly sensitive to blooms, suffering reductions in their abundance, species richness, and diversity. The total net primary productivity, gross primary productivity, and respiration of benthic ecosystems were higher during macroalgal blooms, but blooms had negative effects on the productivity and respiration of other organisms. These results suggest that, in addition to their direct social and economic costs, macroalgal blooms have ecological effects that may alter their capacity to deliver important ecosystem services.

Item Type: Publication - Article
Additional Keywords: biodiversity; ecosystem functioning; green tide; harmful algal bloom; macroalgal bloom; macroalgal mat; species richness
Subjects: Biology
Conservation
Ecology and Environment
Meteorology and Climatology
Pollution
Divisions: Plymouth Marine Laboratory > Science Areas > Marine Life Support Systems
Depositing User: Ana Queiros
Date made live: 30 Jun 2014 09:58
Last Modified: 06 Jun 2017 16:12
URI: http://plymsea.ac.uk/id/eprint/6101

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